Prima Pagina
Reg. Tribunale Lecce n. 662 del 01.07.1997
Direttore responsabile: Dario Cillo


 

-          JOB INSECURITY AND CONTINUOUS TRAINING WORLD WIDE.

-          “EUROPEAN PROJECT “FORCO PRECANET “

-          http://www.narnia.it/forcoprecanet/

Proseguimento del tema :”PRODURRE CULTURA INNOVATIVA” per la Economia  Europea basata sulla Conoscenza. 

Progetto Europeo FORCO-PRECANET : http://www.narnia.it/forcoprecanet/

By :Paolo Manzelli  LRE@UNIFI.IT

(Producing Innovative Culture for European Knowledge Economy)  See also in : : http://www.edscuola.it/lre.html

Preface:

In the initial period of economic transformation among the Industrial society and the post industrial society called all over the world with the name of “Knowledge Economy” generates the need of a deep economic reforms that till now act preferentially on the job changes.

As a  matter of facts all over the world also in the developed countries  most people lose their fixed monthly  salary and  generally the fixed salary of workers is becoming insufficient to maintain a decent standard of living. 

At present (year 2003 ), the  youth unemployment rate is relatively increasing. , and the job insecurity is becoming a reality for too many people

 

 The general situation is that some jobs will become redundant and some skills will become outdated and in this context of massive job destruction that was allocated in the industrial society need to an efficient reallocation both in the labour skills and job-opportunities.

 

In those context life-long continuous adult training  can be one important solution that need to be also rethink in contents and methods of  learning  into a multidisciplinary  Information Technological Communication  (ITC) systems.

 

But the skill restructuring for a flexible reorganization of the division of labour in the post industrial society cannot be a “panacea” of the contemporary difficulties of the developmental transformation of the Knowledge Society. 

Although the educational change towards a more knowledge-based economy is crucial for future competitiveness of  the nation, there no simple solutions based only on knowledge approaches to change because the average working people this change not as well as an opportunity of bettering the society inequalities but as an increasing threat to his job security and especially for youth people this can be seen as a difficulty to find active work solutions for their future life.

 

For this reason in this context  of insecurity generated by the globalisation of the world economic systems in a great range of countries of industrialized countries the European Governs will promote and improve  welfare policy  in a correlation between work  transformation  tray to find a correlation between work  transformation and global economy development changes aiming to develop is proceeding at a more very rapid rate, and is generally develop a negative reaction of people that without understanding the economic new context of development can give a  reply that look to come back to the past as well as the better really impossible solution.

 

In reality it will important to underline that  the job insecurity is principally  a consequence of the lack of available finance to meet global challenges , and in spite of this at the contrary of this need it is easy to see a strong  increasing of the speculative phenomenon that is developing in the contemporary arena of international finance .

 

In theory  speculation is moving fast in order to take advantages in the favourable future of developmental assets , but this system now  risks to much to destroy the possibilities of developing world wide the Knowledge Society.

 

 As a matter of fact the he financial aspect is a “Zero sum global game” because if one party make profit another party makes a loss, for the same amount, but this generated a very drastic social "Unequal exchange" that push a dangerous changes on the “SURPLUS VALUE” that is the basis of the fragility of the contemporary social crisis; this  because the most vulnerable working people risks unemployment  and the flexibility  of work conditions that do not respond of a continuity  of work during the entire life.

 

In fact the restructuring of the skills  for find a new job is a process too slow for instance in respect of the financial speculative global exchange; so that unemployment  increases significantly all over the world and also is deepen the poverty for also all of formal sector stable employment, because this  situation of high uncertainty also leads to a large decline in social safety and security nets, and in all other factors  that are indicators of growing up a civil society.

 

In conclusion now a days we the Knowledge Economy need to overcome the old competitive strategies that born with the industrialisation of  economy,  where the people of the world have thus far constituted a system of  separate autonomies based of single enterprises each of which operates by  a proper economy behaviour instead of the contemporary need of networking global economies.

 

How it will be possible to develop an opposite way of thinking of the obsolete industrial economy in relation to the evolving, co-operative working economy oriented into a new progressive investment of the open-world configuration-on a space-system-considered as as-a-whole?

 

LRE-EGO-CreaNET of the University of Florence Italy , on the basis of  the study on JOB INSECURITY AND CONTINUOUS TRAINING WORLD WIDE made in the context of the Leonardo Eu project “FORCO PRECANET “ suggests  the following indication to  characterise the process of finding the best the solutions  for improving the process of transformation:

 

- Favouring  a “Mental Change” by means a strategy of involving groupings approach for delocalizing the industrial old economy with an especial effort to the SME’s internationalization of production .

 

- Supporting the development of new ITC systems of rapid skill shortage development for a net-economy improvement based on a sharing of knowledge and resources;

 

- Generating innovative measures for decreasing unemployment, based on favouring public and private no for profit investments in self-employment// entrepeneurship policies especially regarding the intellectual unemployment.

 

Hence following those features can be possible  to accelerate the gap in contemporary need to understand the complexity of the transformation pushed by the globalization of the market and the negative financial speculation for overturn the contractions on the evolutionary process of societal transformation and advancing on the most efficient opportunities  to invest in renewing skills and professional competencies by means renovate continuous training strategies of  knowledge understanding on the education innovative strategy oriented to improve knowledge society.

 

 

       GENERAL CONSIDERATION AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

…..Keyword-based bibliographical search:

         ( Report in English  language and sometimes in Italian )

PRINCIPAL ARGUMENTS  ( JOB INSECURITY)

Key Words : ( job problems and continuous training  )

 (ELECTRONIC DOCUMENTS)
Motore di Ricerca :
www.google.it.

 

 

 (1)  AAVV  Title : “Learning to Live with Job Insecurity” (Article)

Electronic Document (English)  : http://www.mier.org.my/mierscope/azidin25_1_2003.pdf

Abstract : :

All over the world to most people whose income depend on a fixed monthly salary, there is little  concern about how the economy is doing.

As long as the person has a job with income that is sufficient to maintain a decent standard of living, he or she may not even care about or even know what GDP growth is all about.

What is more important is a stable job market.!

At present, even though unemployment rate is relatively low, many people have accepted the fact that job security is no longer absolute. Even tough there is still full employment in the labour market, the Asian crisis had introduced more uncertainty in so far as employment is concerned.

As companies faced steep declines in economic growth, they were forced to undertake drastic measures to make sure that losses were not too painful. Some jobs will become redundant and some skills will become outdated.

In those context Life-long continuous learning can be one solution. Although the change towards a more knowledge-based economy is crucial for future competitiveness of the nation, the average worker may see this as an increasing threat to his job security.

 

Responsible : Malaysian Institute of Economic Research (MIER).

Page consulted on Date – 23/DEC/2003

(2)    P.Manzelli  Title: “ Gli Skills di NET –WORKERS”  (Articolo )

Electronic Document (Italian) http://www.breadandroses.it/formazione/articolo.php?id=18

 

Abstract :

Nelle contemporanee condizioni di difficolta’ prodotta dalla necessita di  flessibilità del  di lavoro dei quadri intellettuali, diviene necessaria una formazione innovativa di “TEAM –WORK” capace di collaborare in sistemi di condivisione di conoscenza per la nerwork economy , nell’ ambito dei quali la formazione professionale si acquisisce direttamente lavorando in un team e perseguendo strategie di progettazione del tipo Goal Oriented Project Planning ( in sigla GOPP )

 

Responsible of the WEB-pages

- Professional Community BREAD & ROSES : http://www.breadandroses.it/#:

Page consulted on Date – 23/DEC/2003

(3) AAVV . Learning in Europe : Observatory on national and international evolution( Web program site)

Electronic Document : (English): http://www.education-observatories.net/leonie/

Abstract :MAIN OBJECTIVES:

  1. To identify major drivers of change, in economy and society, which effect the present and future development of education and training
  2. To identify and develop a capacity to monitor the innovation processes that are taking place within education and training systems, and that are intentionally implemented by the relevant authorities and players
  3. To build and validate a series of indicators, that will allow comparisons in time and between countries, of change processes affecting education and training.
  4. To establish a capacity to forecast the likely evolution of education and training in Europe;
  5. To build different levels of multi-actor partnership to make the validated observation components sustainable in the medium and long term.

Responsible of the WEB-pages Helsinki University of Technology HUT, FINLAND

Page consulted on Date – 27/DEC/2003

(4)   Sandrine Cazes and Alena Nesporova -Title: Towards excessive job insecurity in transition economies? (Report)

 

Electronic Document : (English): http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/strat/publ/ep01-23.htm

 

Abstract : Rapid technical progress and increasing competition in global markets are forcing enterprises to continuously innovate and restructure production, invest in new technologies, and minimize production costs in order to be competitive. These changes result in with job creation and job destruction as well as changes in job content and skill requirements within and outside enterprises. Labour force adjustment is achieved through internal re-deployment, often combined with retraining and skills upgrading but also through staff reductions and new recruitments of workers with required skills.This paper focuses on labour market changes in transition countries over the past decade. Until 1990, enterprises of the Soviet bloc countries had been largely protected against the impacts of the world markets through centrally organized production and distribution, and the dominance of producers in the home market. In addition, labour markets were also strongly regulated so that workers enjoyed very high employment security and job stability. Political changes made possible the long-delayed economic and social reforms, which opened domestic markets to import competition while challenging traditional export destinations. The present paper has been prepared within the framework of a project on "Adjustment of labour markets to economic and structural change: Labour market flexibility and security and labour market policies" run by the Labour Market Policy Team of the Employment Strategy Department.

Responsible : Rashid Amjad  - International Labour Org. – ILO-Employment Strategy Department

Page consulted on Date – 27/DEC/2003

4) - Ernesto Tavoletti :  Title : High education and High intellectual Unemployment :does Education Matter? an Interpretation and some critical perspectives  (Article)

 

Electronic Document : (English)

http://www.utwente.nl/cheps/documenten/susu2003/tavoletti.pdf

 

Abstract : 

This paper take the Italian case as an example and on the basis of new epistemological premises about the concept of “knowledge”, this paper intends to provide an interpretation on the relationships between the concepts of Globalisation and the Knowledge driven economy in terms of an  apparent contradiction that generates  very high unemployment of “knowledge workers” in the “knowledge economy” aiming to  provide some critical perspectives for higher educational policies.

 

Responsible  of WEB: Universiteit Twente - Netherland  : http://www.utwente.nl/

Page consulted on Date – 30/DEC/2003

5) Gernot Köhler  Title : “Surplus Value and Transfer Value”

Electronic Document (English) : http://wsarch.ucr.edu/archive/papers/kohler/svtv.htm

Abstract :

Conceptually, "surplus value" is the amount of value which the worker helps to produce but does not get  directly in the production market economy.   In the aggregate, the "mass of surplus value" in the economy is the difference between aggregate income and total remuneration.

The heterodox "national accounting identity" uses a similar distinction, namely,

Q  =  w L + r K   where wL is all wage income (namely, wage rate w  times number of workers L) and rK is all other income (namely, rate of return on capital r times volume of capital

 

Responsible of Web pages: JOURNAL OF WORLD-SYSTEMS RESEARCH http://wsarch.ucr.edu/

Page consulted on Date – 30/DEC/2003

 

6)  Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, under the supervision of Prof. Nikolai Genov. The study was supported by Friedrich Ebert Foundation. Title: Unemployment in Bulgaria  (Report)

 

Electronic Document (English) http://www.soc.lu.se/soc/distans/socrates/mastercourse/bulgaria.PDF

 

Abstract :

In Bulgaria in recent years the restrictions on incomes decreased the already rather low purchasing power of the population. Given this situation, social anxiety is widespread among economic actors regardless of their position in the economic process.

. Entrepreneurs are under intensive stress due to constant changes in the investment climate, interest rate fluctuations, declining consumption and the high level of taxation.

 Employees feel strongly the lack of alternatives in employment, as well as the lack of jobs corresponding to their education and vocational training, or just the lack of suitable jobs.

Current mass unemployment deforms the whole system of labour relations. It is a decisive factor in the low standard of living. It exerts a negative influence on the socio-professional status of individuals as well as on their social expectations Third, employment promotion policy. In spite of the rather modest results of efforts to encourage employment, these measures differ drastically in form and scope from the structure of unemployment described.

The expected effects of structural reform, often referred to as ‘structural unemployment’, did not anticipate a significant proportion of highly qualified specialists being left jobless.

This is why the employment office programmes mostly addressed the low qualified

segments of the workforce.

The high level of unemployment, the social isolation of the unemployed and difficult access to employment for large sections of the population require investment in training programmes for crafts and professions. These programmes are urgent since growing unemployment and social isolation threaten the social peace and security of Bulgarian society. That is why a change in the conception for training the unemployed is indispensable together with a change in the policy and measures for regulating the labour market.

Fourth; employment promotion policy. In spite of the rather modest results of efforts to encourage employment, these measures differ drastically in form and scope from the structure of unemployment described. The expected effects of structural reform, often referred to as ‘structural unemployment’, did not anticipate a significant proportion of highly qualified specialists being left jobless. This is why the employment office programmes mostly addressed the low qualified segments of the workforce.

The high level of unemployment, the social isolation of the unemployed and difficult access to employment for large sections of the population require investment in training programmes for crafts and professions. These programmes are urgent since growing unemployment and social isolation threaten the social peace and security of Bulgarian society. That is why a change in the conception for training the unemployed is indispensable together with a change in the policy and measures for regulating the labour market.

 

Responsible of Web pages: LUNDS UNIVERSITY : http://www.soc.lu.se/

Page consulted on Date – 30/DEC/2003

7) CIUSPO (University of Firenze) ; The integration of young people into working life and the future of democratic culture in southern Europe.  (Report)

 

Electronic Document (English) http://europa.eu.int/comm/youth/doc/studies/youthforeurope/ciuspo.pdf

 

Abstrant: This study investigates the relation between the work opportunities of young people and their socio-political values. The empirical analysis - based on an international survey of 4,693 young people between 18 and 30 years carried out in 1997-98 - focuses on Italy, Spain, and France. These are the three largest countries of Southern Europe - that is, the sub-continental area where the problem of youth unemployment is most severe.

By clarifying the way in which macro-social and economic phenomena affect the political culture of youth, the study assesses family integration and higher education as major factors accounting, on the one hand, for support for democratic values and institutions and, on the other, rejection of racist and xenophobic attitudes even when young people face unemployment. Such an assessment militates in favour of policies promoting family welfare and educational expansion as they may indirectly affect the capacity to govern generational discontent and conflicts in the European Union.

The general objective of the study was to investigate the relation between the work opportunities of youth and their adhesion to democratic values. Such a relation should be particularly strong in southern Europe, where youth unemployment is a widespread phenomenon.

In particular, a potentially dangerous factor for democratic support is held to be “intellectual unemployment” (a weaker form of which is the mismatch between qualifications and occupation, i.e. under-employment of youth with higher education).

In fact, in contrast to what happens elsewhere in the EU and the Western world, in southern Europe (except France) young individuals with upper-level degrees have approximately the same probabilities of unemployment as less educated age peers (in Italy, Spain and Greece, long-term unemployment is an even greater risk for young people with an upper-secondary qualification than for youth with lower educational credentials).

Finally, it is also thought that the scarcity of jobs is more likely to bring about antidemocratic attitudes in countries with a deep-rooted tradition of political authoritarianism exists (i.e., in Italy and Spain rather than in France).

In brief, the study intends: a) to test the hypothesis that the prospect of unemployment undermines support for democracy among young people; b) to specify how the relation between work opportunities and youth's adhesion to democratic values is mediated by exogenous factors - at the global, local, and family-individual level. The empirical analysis focuses on Italy, Spain, and France: the three largest countries of southern Europe, that is, the sub-continental area where the problem of youth unemployment is most severe.

 

Responsible of Web pages:  : http://europa.eu.int/comm/youth/index_en.html

Page consulted on Date – 30/DEC/2003

8)       MENTAL CHANGE”  FP6- EU Project  Promoted by EGO-CreaNET /LRE University of Florence Italy  (FP6-IP- EU Project / Priority on CITIZEN & SOCIETY)

 

: Electronic Document (English and Italian )

Abstract : ( Italian)

Per “’Economia della Conoscenza” si fa riferimento allo sviluppo di una “Economia di rete” in cui la bilancia del valore economico tra Innovazione e Beni materiali sta cambiando nella strategia di una Europa che sta allargando i propri confini a favore dello sviluppo di una “società post-industriale”, basata su un forte impulso verso la condivisione delle conoscenze e innovazioni co-organizzative delle infrastrutture e della produttività del mercato europeo.

Quindi le imprese Europee correlate in rete ed associate con altre Istituzioni e Centri Di Ricerca e Sviluppo (sia pubblici che privati) si trovano oggi nella condizione di dover rispondere alla necessità dei cambiamenti richiesti dalla società post-industriale, in relazione all’innovazione del lavoro, della gestione condivisa delle conoscenze, della nuova imprenditorialita’, della internazionalizzazione della Piccole e Media Impresa, ecc..ecc.. , incoraggiando l’affermarsi di nuove idee e migliori pratiche, per sostenere il futuro piuttosto che cercare di favorire la continuita’ con il passato.

Tutto questo, essenzialmente, significa saper investire le proprie risorse “mentali” al fine di collaborare nel rendere efficaci ed efficienti le migliori strategie di innovazione dell’e.Govern in Europa.

Considerando l’attenzione per lo sviluppo globale un fattore critico di successo, spetta ad un sistema coordinato di Ricerca e Sviluppo l’attuazione delle strategie capaci di evidenziare il valore aggiunto ai “beni immateriali” perché questi ultimi costituiscono il fulcro della futura Economia della Conoscenza.

Partendo da queste considerazioni, LRE/EGO-CREANET in collaborazione con la Regione Toscana, provvederà a sostenere un progetto FP6-CITIZEN 3 per ricercare e definire le “best practices” capaci di innestare un radicale cambiamento adeguato a creare valore dai “beni intangibili” e contribuire in tal modo successo del business di ogni organizzazione di “Impresa a Rete” in Europa.

Le aree chiave (ACR – Aree Chiave di Risultato) dei fattori critici vincenti in un innovativo assetto economico sono rappresentate dall’evoluzione del cosiddetto “commercio intangibile” che, al giorno d’oggi, rappresenta la svolta più importante per un’innovazione basata sulla conoscenza.

Queste aree di riferimento sono le seguenti:

a)Favorire la organizzazione transnazionale di imprese ed istituzioni di Ricerca&Sviluppo operanti in rete.b) Collaborare ad una efficiente condivisione delle conoscenze tra RTD (Unità di ricerca) e PMI (piccole e medie aziende) al fine di correlare la produzione di beni materiali alla valorizzazione dei beni immateriali. c) Superare le carenze professionali e cognitive (Skill shortage) per dare sviluppo a una capacita di gestione delle conoscenze basata sulla innovazione. d) Favorire la trasformazione del lavoro intellettuale da occupazione dipendente a forme di imprenditorialita’ e consulenza co-operativa

Nella trasformazione sociale contemporanea le risorse immateriali divengono sempre piu’ importanti per creare nuove opportunità, in nuovi modalita’ di lavoro intellettuale, per raggiungere obiettivi nelle aree chiave di successo, sviluppando politiche di e.Govern che favoriscano “Investimenti sulle Risorse Umane” (Intangible Assets) nella giusta percezione della prospettiva della futura European Knowledge Society

 

Responsible of Web pages:  : http://www.edscuola.it/ ,

DARIO CILLO <edscuola@edscuola.com

Page consulted on Date – 30/DEC/2003


La pagina
- Educazione&Scuola©