La organizzazione ed elaborazione della Memoria dell' Uomo , si basa
su due circuiti di elaborazione cerebrale che vengono esercitati
indipendentemente generando interferenze complementari, necessarie a
migliorare il recupero dell' apprendimento e alla rielaborazione
Normalmente le due modalità di memoria vengono indicate come memoria a
breve (STM) ed a lungo termine (LTM) , ma la distinzione tra esse non e
solo funzione del tempo di evocazione della memoria, ma più
propriamente consiste in una distinzione che si connette a due livelli
di profondita' della ritensione mnemonica.
La prima strategia mnemonica a breve termine (STM) , permette di
apprendere e ricordare mediante un raggiuppamento di neuroni che si
estende "orizzontalmente" con ampiezza variabile nell' area logico
sensoria del cervello , per mezzo della crescita delle connessioni
Essa permette la acquisizione ed il recupero delle conoscenze a breve
termine , ed un migliore esercizio mnemonico di questa strategia , viene
ad essere funzione di un fenomeno di risonanza della rete neurale
costruita mediante in collegamento simultaneo dei contatti sinaptici.
Spesso attivita' di attenzione e concentrazione favoriscono questa
L a seconda elaborazione di acquisizione e recupero delle conoscenze
detta Memoria a Lungo Termine (LTM) . agisce nel cervello
preferenzialmente mediante collegamenti "verticali" connessi con
livelli cerebrali piu profondi creando interferenze di tipo affettivo
di lungo periodo con le aree cerebrali più ancestrali talamiche ed
ipotalamiche le quali determinano una prevalenza nelle costruzione e
rafforzamento permanente della propria identita' .
Di fatto e' necessario distinguere le due tipologie mnemoniche in quanto
esse sono complementari, ma la loro interdipendenza non significa che
l' una (STM) si trasformi nell' altra (LTM), proprio in quanto nel
cervello non sussistano sistemi di selezione , concentrazione e sintesi
delle conoscenze , che permettano di trasferirle dall' uno all'altro
circuito di elaborazione cerebrale della memoria.
Tale precisazione e assai importante dato che oggi l' utilizzazione
delle strategie di e.Learning ed i sistemi ITC di memorizzazione e
recupero mnemonico, permettono di esternalizzare la memoria a lungo
termine (LTM) ed quindi di esercitare in modo preferenziale la rete
neuronale più propria delle strategie mnemonica (STM) tramite la quale
si favorisce il ricorso comparativo ai processi di intuizione e di
fantasia , che permettono la formazione di una maggior flessibilita'
Lecture at the COMMUNICATION CAMPUS in HENIOLA FINLAND June 2005.
http://viekas.fi/uusi/ by : PAOLO MANZELLI
Human memory can be understand starting to develop a cognitive science
about the two kinds not only
in the time necessary to recall and remembering , but they are
different in the structural bio-chemical encoding and reconstruction
procedures that underline the neuronal connectivity of different areas
of the brain. of memory
processing : A) SHORT TERM MEMORY (STM) B) LONG TERM MEMORY(LTM).This
two memorizing neuronal processes are distinct
STM (SHORT TERM MEMORY ) , is a consequence of the clustering
integration of neurons, that works together in a resonance effect to
stabilize memory encoding and recalling processes from episodic to
more permanent time in remembering the encoded events. The integration
area of the brain related to STM , concerns less emotional interaction
so that STM mnemonic strategy generates an integration extended
principally on the sensory cortex of the brain.
> B) LTM ( LONG TERM MEMORY ) , utilizes a different area of
integration focused on the emotional limbic system of the brain , and
the recall of memory include non only periodic changes at the synapses
, and an increase of dendritic growth ( as well as the STM) , but
surely goes more in deeper of the brain-biology of proteins
production, involving the genetic reproduction of proteins.
In relation to the two memorization procedures related to the learning
process , the STM is more connected with the encoding of implicit
skills , while the LTM is more related to the ability of semantic
recognition , i. e. a process where is necessary to realise a
comparison of new and previous information codified in a long time
Certainly the two typologies of mnemonic processes are interacting
more or less efficiently in the brain because LTM compare successive
long time storages of memory , and STM connects contemporary events.
Knowing those fundamental diversities of encoding and retreating
information processes through the two kind of brain processing of
memory, we can observe that enlarging the dynamic of information ,in
our contemporary society, it becomes easy to understand that today
students exercise principally the STM procedures in respect to LTM
ones, and as a consequence youth is more inclined to avoid the LTM
approach generally super imposed by the traditional teaching approach
in the old schooling systems.
As a matter of facts students working with Information Communication
Technology are more able to learn skills in a unconscious methodology
of STM; therefore the LRE/EGOCREANET Educational research helps
teachers to understand better the dynamic the relationships between
learning and memorizing processes in the brain In the research
application of the project entitled “BRAIN LANDING” , the EGOCREANET
University’s School Group , experimented that the children at level of
elementary schools can be able to acquire and elaborate a theory of
the MIND/BRAIN evolutionary relationships and acquire a mode of
though based on the knowing the more advanced knowledge of brain
functioning. In fact the pupils know that the more immediate
clustering of neurons , becomes more useful in a quick encoding and
retrieval of information. So that can be conscious that the result is
a restriction of LTM procedures , due to a retrieval failures , that
accelerate the repression of LTM brain´ s method of recalling memory ,
within a result of an increased brain plasticity of the learning that
the old methodology of learning obstructs , blocking the new
opportunities of Human and Social Evolution of the Brain’s creativity.
opportunities of Internet Distance Learning for developing a more
flexible and sensitive brain functioning schooling system need a
conceptual innovation based on the consideration of the advanced
brain research on neurophysiology of learning for improving a change
of the old traditional system of schooling based on the repetition of
disciplinary books instead of a trans-disciplinary method of e.
learning based on the better understanding of brain memory
- General Principles of Underlying Memory encoding and retrieving
It is important to remember that adrenalin
potentiate the activation function of linking the emotional sectors of
the brain to Amigdala favouring LTM encoding procedures. . At the
contrary is experimented that a chemical substance named
“propranololo” , working on the receptors of the limbic systems help
to forget emotional part of the memory processes blocking the
retrieval of memorial stressing events due to a emotional trauma. This
notion reinforce the idea that the STM and LTM corresponds to
different circuits of the memory processing the working brain, so that
is more easy to understand that Short Term Memory cannot be simply
translated in longer term storage in the brain.
As a matter of fact the two procedure STM and LTM of memorizing
process do not correspond to an unique reorganization path of acquired
knowledge in the short to long time through subsequent stages memory
informational codification and storage of a single neuronal dynamics.
In fact there are not signal selection and transduction from STM and
LTM in a same working linear biochemical trail. This consideration
reinforce the fact that STM and LTM correspond to a different
interactive brain procedures that link different circuits and areas of
the brain and also to diverse approaches of memory consolidation.
STM is a networking procedure that change synapses excitability and
sensitivity and implies the activation of growth factors for expanding
the clusters of dendrites building up the brain plasticity.
LTM - provide a different insights of genetic reproduction of
proteins preferentially in a working integration areas focused in the
hippocampus were the emotion can be stored , and as a consequence LTM
procedure is reducing the brain plasticity.
From the history of the science of memory can be
recognized that in the antique Greece there are two different
conception about the learning to utilize the memory. For Plato the
knowledge is a reorganization of information by means a “Reminiscence”
system , whereas for Aristotele the memory process is due to
recognize the “shadows of ideas” that people can evocate and
rebuilt. So that the existence of two different typology of memory
has also an historical fundamental character.
Today science of Neurobiology of learning and
memory knows that STM implies a plastic modification of biochemical
processes that underline changes in neuronal connectivity linking
various areas of the brain functioning to get a selective retention of
the most relevant information through a resonance effect well
described by Donald Hebb that in 1949 wrote <<Neurons that
fire together wire together>>.
At the contrary LTM includes a more deep gene expression of protein
synthesis reorganization; so that the LTM model of memory is
depending more strongly by the DNA reproduction of proteins . In fact
if the protein synthesis is blocked as a consequence of a neuronal
disease, the LTM process of long term memory is quite completely loss,
but survive the STM ability to remember.
Finally I remember that those distinction between
STM and LTM neuronal memorizing procedures are fundamental for getting
a more precise representation how people can learn by the construction
of mental maps and representation patterns in high condition of brain
plasticity and how people can difficult change the mentality in
relation to the more deep LTM storage of internalized representation.
Paolo Manzelli 13/JUNE/2005
From : HEINOLA . COMMUNICATION
CAMP in FINLAND
On Line Bibliography.
COMMUNICATION CAMPUS in HENIOLA FINLAND :http://viekas.fi/uusi/
3) Human Memory:
4) The brain Centre: