Prima Pagina
Reg. Tribunale Lecce n. 662 del 01.07.1997
Direttore responsabile: Dario Cillo


 

"La Scienza della Memoria Umana"

Abstract del testo in Inglese: The Science of Human Memory : Paolo Manzelli <LRE@UNIFI.IT>
http://www.edscuola.it/archivio/lre/science_of_human_memory.htm

La organizzazione ed elaborazione della Memoria  dell' Uomo , si basa su due circuiti di elaborazione cerebrale che vengono esercitati  indipendentemente generando interferenze complementari,  necessarie a migliorare il  recupero dell' apprendimento e alla rielaborazione cognitiva.

Normalmente  le due modalità di memoria vengono indicate come memoria a breve (STM) ed a lungo termine (LTM) , ma la distinzione tra esse  non e solo funzione del tempo di evocazione della memoria,  ma più propriamente consiste in una distinzione che si connette a due livelli di profondita' della ritensione mnemonica.

La prima strategia mnemonica a breve termine (STM) , permette di apprendere e ricordare mediante un raggiuppamento di neuroni che si estende "orizzontalmente"  con ampiezza variabile  nell' area logico sensoria del cervello , per mezzo della crescita delle connessioni dendritiche .
Essa permette la acquisizione ed il recupero delle conoscenze a breve termine , ed un migliore esercizio mnemonico di questa strategia , viene ad essere  funzione di un fenomeno di risonanza della rete neurale costruita mediante in collegamento simultaneo dei contatti sinaptici. Spesso attivita' di attenzione e concentrazione favoriscono questa strategie mnemonica.

L a  seconda elaborazione di acquisizione e recupero delle conoscenze detta Memoria a Lungo Termine (LTM) .  agisce nel cervello preferenzialmente mediante collegamenti "verticali" connessi  con  livelli cerebrali piu profondi creando  interferenze di tipo affettivo  di lungo periodo con le aree cerebrali più ancestrali talamiche ed ipotalamiche le quali determinano una prevalenza nelle costruzione e rafforzamento permanente  della propria identita'  .

Di fatto e' necessario distinguere le due tipologie mnemoniche in quanto esse sono  complementari,  ma  la loro interdipendenza non significa che l' una (STM) si trasformi nell' altra (LTM), proprio in quanto nel cervello non sussistano sistemi di selezione , concentrazione e sintesi delle conoscenze , che permettano di trasferirle  dall' uno all'altro circuito di elaborazione cerebrale della memoria.

Tale precisazione  e assai importante  dato che oggi l' utilizzazione delle strategie di e.Learning ed i sistemi ITC di memorizzazione e recupero mnemonico, permettono di esternalizzare la memoria a lungo termine (LTM)  ed quindi di esercitare in modo preferenziale la rete neuronale più propria delle strategie mnemonica (STM) tramite la quale si favorisce il ricorso comparativo ai processi di intuizione e di fantasia , che permettono la formazione di una maggior flessibilita' cerebrale.

Precedenti articoli: :
Memoria ed Intelletto : http://www.edscuola.it/archivio/lre/memoria_e_intelletto.htm
e.Learning ed i percorsi della memoria : http://www.edscuola.it/archivio/lre/elearmem.html
Creativita' e Memoria: http://www.edscuola.it/archivio/lre/cremem.html


 

“Science of Human Memory”

 

Lecture at the COMMUNICATION CAMPUS in HENIOLA FINLAND June 2005.

http://viekas.fi/uusi/ by : PAOLO MANZELLI <LRE@Unifi.it>

 

                    Human memory can be understand starting to develop a cognitive science about  the two kinds >of memory processing : A) SHORT TERM MEMORY (STM) B) LONG TERM MEMORY(LTM).This two memorizing neuronal processes are distinct not only in the time necessary to recall and remembering , but they are different in the structural bio-chemical encoding and reconstruction procedures that underline the neuronal connectivity of different areas of the brain.

 

>A) STM (SHORT TERM MEMORY ) , is a consequence of the clustering integration of neurons, that works together in a resonance effect to stabilize memory encoding and recalling processes from episodic to more permanent time in remembering the encoded events. The integration area of the brain related to STM , concerns less emotional interaction so that STM mnemonic strategy generates an integration extended principally on the sensory cortex of the brain.

 

> B) LTM ( LONG TERM MEMORY ) , utilizes a different area of integration focused on the emotional limbic system of the brain , and the recall of memory include non only periodic changes at the synapses , and an increase of dendritic growth ( as well as the STM) ,  but surely goes more in deeper of the brain-biology of proteins production, involving the genetic reproduction of proteins.

 

In relation to the two memorization procedures related to the learning process , the STM is more connected with the encoding of implicit skills , while the LTM is more related to the ability of semantic recognition , i. e. a process where is necessary to realise a comparison of new and previous information codified in a long  time before.

 

Certainly the two typologies of mnemonic processes are interacting more or less efficiently in the brain because LTM compare successive long time storages of memory , and STM connects contemporary events.

 

Knowing those fundamental diversities of encoding and retreating information processes through the two kind of brain processing of memory, we can observe that enlarging the dynamic of information ,in our contemporary society, it becomes easy to understand  that today students exercise principally the STM procedures in respect to LTM ones, and as a consequence youth is more inclined to avoid the LTM approach generally super imposed by  the traditional teaching approach in the old schooling systems.

 

As a matter of facts students working with Information Communication Technology are more able to learn skills in a unconscious methodology of STM;  therefore the LRE/EGOCREANET Educational research helps teachers to understand better the dynamic the relationships between learning and memorizing processes in the brain  In the  research application of the project entitled  “BRAIN LANDING” , the EGOCREANET University’s School Group , experimented that the children at level of elementary schools can be able to acquire and elaborate a theory of the MIND/BRAIN evolutionary  relationships and acquire a mode of though based on the knowing the more advanced knowledge of brain functioning. In fact the pupils know that the more immediate clustering of neurons , becomes more useful in a quick encoding and retrieval of information. So that can be conscious that the result is a restriction of LTM procedures , due to a retrieval failures , that accelerate the repression of LTM brain´ s method of recalling memory ,  within a result of an increased brain plasticity of the learning that the old methodology of learning obstructs , blocking the new opportunities of Human and Social Evolution of the Brain’s creativity.  

                   

                    Hence aiming to enhance the new opportunities of Internet Distance Learning for  developing  a more flexible and sensitive brain functioning schooling system need a conceptual innovation  based on the consideration of the advanced brain research on neurophysiology of learning for improving a change of the old traditional system of schooling based on the repetition of disciplinary books instead of a trans-disciplinary method of e. learning based on the better understanding of brain memory evolutionary functions.

 

- General Principles of Underlying Memory encoding and retrieving processes .

 

                    It is important to remember that adrenalin potentiate the activation function of linking the emotional sectors of the brain to Amigdala favouring LTM encoding procedures. . At the contrary is experimented that a chemical substance named “propranololo” , working on the receptors of the limbic systems help to forget emotional part of the memory processes blocking the retrieval of memorial stressing events due to a emotional trauma. This notion reinforce the idea that the STM and LTM corresponds to different circuits of the memory processing the working brain, so that is more easy to understand that Short Term Memory  cannot be simply translated in longer term storage in the brain.

 

As a matter of fact the two procedure STM and LTM of memorizing process do not correspond to an unique reorganization path of acquired knowledge in the short to long time through subsequent stages memory informational codification and storage of a single neuronal dynamics. In fact there are not signal selection and transduction from STM and LTM in a same working linear biochemical trail. This consideration reinforce the fact that STM and LTM correspond  to a different interactive brain procedures that link different circuits and areas of the brain and also to diverse approaches of memory consolidation.

 

STM is a networking  procedure that change synapses excitability and sensitivity and implies the activation of growth factors for expanding the clusters of dendrites building up the brain  plasticity.

 

LTM - provide a different insights of genetic reproduction of metabolic

proteins preferentially  in a working integration areas focused in the hippocampus were the emotion can be stored , and as a consequence  LTM procedure is reducing the brain plasticity.

 

                    From the history of the science of memory can be recognized that in the antique Greece there are two different conception about the learning to utilize the memory. For Plato the knowledge is a reorganization of information by means a “Reminiscence” system , whereas for  Aristotele the memory process is due to recognize the “shadows of ideas” that people can evocate and rebuilt.   So that the existence of two different typology of memory has also an historical fundamental character.

 

                    Today science of Neurobiology of learning and memory knows that STM implies a plastic modification of biochemical processes that underline changes in neuronal connectivity linking various areas of the brain functioning to get a selective retention of the most relevant information through a resonance effect well described by Donald Hebb that in 1949 wrote <<Neurons that fire together wire together>>.

 

At the contrary LTM includes a more deep gene expression of protein synthesis reorganization;  so that the LTM model of memory is depending more strongly by the DNA reproduction of proteins . In fact if the protein synthesis is blocked  as a consequence of a neuronal disease, the LTM process of long term memory is quite completely loss, but survive the STM ability to remember.

 

                    Finally I remember that those distinction between STM and LTM neuronal memorizing procedures are fundamental for getting a more precise representation how people can learn by the construction of mental maps and representation patterns in high condition of brain plasticity and how people can difficult  change the mentality in relation to the more deep LTM storage of internalized representation.

 

 

Paolo Manzelli 13/JUNE/2005

From : HEINOLA . COMMUNICATION CAMP in FINLAND

 

On Line Bibliography.

 

1) COMMUNICATION CAMPUS in HENIOLA FINLAND :http://viekas.fi/uusi/

2) Donal Hebb : http://hebb.mit.edu/courses/8.515/lecture2/sld013.htm

3) Human Memory: http://brain.web-us.com/memory/human_memory.htm

4) The brain Centre: http://www.nutramed.com/brain/memory.htm


La pagina
- Educazione&Scuola©